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ABG Interpretation

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Writing an interpretation of arterial blood gases (ABG) for an exam involves a systematic approach. Here’s a detailed guide covering all components, differential diagnoses (d/d), and possible causes :       1. Components of ABG:   - pH: Measures hydrogen ion concentration, indicating acidity or alkalinity.   - PaCO 2: Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, reflecting respiratory function.   - PaO 2: Partial pressure of oxygen, indicating oxygenation status.   - HCO3 -: Bicarbonate, reflecting metabolic (renal) component .   - SaO 2: Oxygen saturation of hemoglobin.   - Base Excess/ Deficit: Indicates the metabolic component and buffering capacity .       2. Step-by-Step Interpretation:       Step 1: Assess pH   - Normal Range: 7.35 - 7.45     - < 7.35: Acidosis     - > 7.45: Alkalosis       Step 2: Determine Primary Problem (Respiratory or Metabolic)   - PaCO2 (Respiratory Component ):     - Normal Range: 35- 45 mm Hg     - > 45 mm Hg: Respiratory acidosis (h